# Historie

**Historie**

**Katedrï¿½la v Dunkeldu**

Vï¿½e ve Skotsku zaï¿½alo pï¿½ed vï¿½ce neï¿½ 8 tisï¿½ci lety. Prvnï¿½ osadnï¿½ci, kteï¿½ï¿½ pï¿½iï¿½li na sever z Anglie nebo pï¿½es souï¿½asnï¿½ Ulster (Severnï¿½ Irsko), rybaï¿½ili a lovili podï¿½l zï¿½padnï¿½ho pobï¿½eï¿½ï¿½.

Asi pï¿½ed 4 tisï¿½ci lety pï¿½istï¿½hovalci ze zï¿½padnï¿½ Evropy, Britï¿½nie a Irska zaï¿½ali farmaï¿½it a zï¿½ï¿½dili kmeny ve Skotsku, uï¿½ï¿½vali hrnï¿½ï¿½ï¿½stvï¿½ a uklï¿½dali svï¿½ zemï¿½elï¿½ do kamennï¿½ch hrobï¿½. Zï¿½padnï¿½ od Aberdeen, archeologovï¿½ objevili zbytky dï¿½evï¿½nï¿½ch budov z tï¿½to doby, asi 1 000 let pï¿½es Stonehenge. Mï¿½sto se jmenuje Balbridie Hall a je to nejstarï¿½ï¿½ dï¿½evï¿½nï¿½ struktura nalezenï¿½ na britskï¿½ch ostrovech.

Skotskï¿½ megalitickï¿½ monumenty - Starting Stones of Callanish na ostrovï¿½ Lewis ve Vnitï¿½nï¿½ch Hebridech a Standing Stones of Brodgar a Standing Stones of Stenness na Mainlandu v Orknejï¿½ch, byly vztyï¿½eny mezi 2 000 - 1 500 lety pï¿½.Kr. rasou, kterï¿½ mï¿½la pï¿½vod asi ve Stï¿½edomoï¿½ï¿½.

Bï¿½hem bronzovï¿½ a ï¿½eleznï¿½ doby bylo Skotsko osï¿½dleno rï¿½znï¿½mi kmeny Keltï¿½, kterï¿½ pï¿½eï¿½ï¿½vajï¿½ v Britï¿½nii jako Gaelic a Welsh.

Skotsko, starokeltsky Alban, antickï¿½ Kaledonie, bylo osï¿½dleno ve 2. aï¿½ 1. tisï¿½ciletï¿½ pï¿½.Kr. pï¿½evï¿½nï¿½ keltskï¿½mi kmeny Britï¿½ a Piktï¿½.

Obyvatelï¿½ jiï¿½nï¿½ od linie Forth - Clyde byli Britovï¿½, na sever byli znï¿½mi jako Piktovï¿½.

Tyto primitivnï¿½ kmeny nedaly moc prï¿½ce ï¿½ï¿½mskï¿½m legiï¿½m, kterï¿½ postupovaly na sever pod vedenï¿½m Agricoly a porazily Pikty v r. 84 n.l. v bitvï¿½ u Mons Graupius v severovï¿½chodnï¿½m Skotsku. Jako obranu proti bojovnï¿½m Piktï¿½m ï¿½ï¿½manï¿½ postavili linii pevnostï¿½ pï¿½es Skotsko od Meigle (severozï¿½padnï¿½ od Dundee) k ï¿½ece Clyde jiï¿½nï¿½ od Loch Lomond. To byla nejsevernï¿½jï¿½ï¿½ linie jejich impï¿½ria. Pozdï¿½ji se stï¿½hli k linii Hadriï¿½novy zdi, kterï¿½ vyznaï¿½ila hranice tehdejï¿½ï¿½ hranice Skotska a Anglie. Ve 2. st. n.l. vybudovali ï¿½ï¿½manï¿½ na ochranu svï¿½ provincie Britannie val (limes) proti nï¿½jezdï¿½m Kaledoncï¿½ (zï¿½ejmï¿½ Piktï¿½, doloï¿½enï¿½ch pod svï¿½m jmï¿½nem od 4. st.). Pozdï¿½ji ve 2. st. masy Piktï¿½ postupovaly k jihu pï¿½es obï¿½ linie, byly okamï¿½itï¿½ odraï¿½eny v r. 208 Septimem Severem, ten byl poslednï¿½m velkï¿½m ï¿½ï¿½mskï¿½m nebezpeï¿½ï¿½m pro Skotsko.

Ve 3. a 4. st. se pï¿½esï¿½dlili na zï¿½padnï¿½ pobï¿½eï¿½ï¿½ Skotska z Irska keltï¿½tï¿½ Skotovï¿½. V 5. st. se vytvoï¿½ila kmenovï¿½ krï¿½lovstvï¿½ Skotï¿½, Piktï¿½ a Britï¿½. Skotovï¿½ vstoupili na scï¿½nu v 5. - 6. st. Gaelsky mluvï¿½cï¿½ kmeny z Irska zaloï¿½ily nestabilnï¿½ krï¿½lovstvï¿½ v Argyllu nazvanï¿½ Dalriada, kterï¿½ bylo stï¿½le ohroï¿½ovanï¿½ Pikty. Ale v r. 563 pï¿½iï¿½el sv. Kolumbï¿½n z Irska aby podpoï¿½il svï¿½ pï¿½ï¿½tele v keltskï¿½m kï¿½esï¿½anstvï¿½. Pï¿½es 30 let z odlehlï¿½ho ostrova Iona ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½il vï¿½ru, kterï¿½ by mohla vytvoï¿½it zï¿½klad pro sjednocenï¿½ Skotska. S klï¿½terem a krï¿½lovskï¿½m hï¿½bitovem je malinkï¿½ Iona jednï¿½m z nejstarï¿½ï¿½ch mï¿½st kï¿½esï¿½anstva.

Skotsko bylo sjednoceno okolo r. 685 Pikty a r. 843 Skoty; sï¿½dlem piktskï¿½ch a skotskï¿½ch krï¿½lï¿½ bylo Scone (od r. 1115 klï¿½ter; poslednï¿½ krï¿½lovskï¿½ korunovace v r. 1651).

V 8. - 12. st. ï¿½toï¿½ili na Skotsko Normanï¿½.

## Normanskï¿½ invaze

Skotsko bylo od konce 8. st. cï¿½lem vï¿½padï¿½ Vikingï¿½, kteï¿½ï¿½ postupovali po celï¿½ Evropï¿½. Stï¿½lï¿½ vikingskï¿½ posï¿½dky byly na Orknejï¿½ch, Hebridï¿½ch a na severu Skotska. V r. 839 skandinï¿½vï¿½tï¿½ bojovnï¿½ci velmi oslabili Pikty a tï¿½m umoï¿½nili gaelskï¿½mu nï¿½ï¿½elnï¿½kovi nazvanï¿½ho Kenneth MacAlpin stï¿½t se krï¿½lem Skotï¿½ a Piktï¿½.

R. 1018 v bitvï¿½ u Carhamu toto jednotnï¿½ krï¿½lovstvï¿½ pod vedenï¿½m Malcolma II. (1005 - 1034) porazilo Northumbrii a rozï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ilo svï¿½ ï¿½zemï¿½ do souï¿½asnï¿½ jiï¿½nï¿½ hranice Skotska, pï¿½ipojili ke Skotsku ï¿½zemï¿½ osï¿½dlenï¿½ Anglosasy. ï¿½Nejï¿½pinavï¿½jï¿½ï¿½ vraï¿½daï¿½ Malcolmova vnuka Duncana II., kterou spï¿½chal Macbeth, slouï¿½ila jako inspirace pro velkou Shakespearovu tragï¿½dii.

Malcolm III., znï¿½mï¿½ jako Malcolm Canmore (Velkohlavï¿½), zmï¿½nil kurs skotskï¿½ch dï¿½jin svatbou s anglickou princeznou v r. 1069. Byla to zboï¿½nï¿½ Margareth, kterï¿½ se pozdï¿½ji stala svatou. Ona a jejï¿½ synovï¿½ pï¿½inesli silnï¿½ anglickï¿½ vliv a atmosfï¿½ru do keltskï¿½ch kostelï¿½ a monarchie jako Skotsko se vyvï¿½jela ve feudï¿½lnï¿½ krï¿½lovstvï¿½.

Od druhï¿½ poloviny 11. st. zaï¿½al ve Skotsku pï¿½sobit silnï¿½ vliv anglickï¿½ho jazyka a prï¿½va, spojenï¿½ s upevï¿½ovï¿½nï¿½m krï¿½lovskï¿½ moci, s rozï¿½iï¿½ovï¿½nï¿½m moci ï¿½ï¿½mskokatolickï¿½ cï¿½rkve, s rozvojem feudalismu a zaklï¿½dï¿½nï¿½m mï¿½st. Proti rozvoji feudï¿½lnï¿½ch vztahï¿½ a ï¿½ï¿½mskokatolickï¿½ hierarchii doï¿½lo od konce 11. st. do zaï¿½ï¿½tku 13. st. k ï¿½adï¿½ povstï¿½nï¿½ keltskï¿½ho obyvatelstva.

Edgar (1117 - 1124), kterï¿½ zï¿½skal trï¿½n s anglickou pomocï¿½; pï¿½enesl krï¿½lovskï¿½ sï¿½dlo do Edinburghu.

Markï¿½tin ï¿½estï¿½ syn, David I. (1124 - 1153, syn Margarety) je znï¿½m pro zaloï¿½enï¿½ tak velkï¿½ho opatstvï¿½ jakï¿½m je Melrose a Jedburgh v pohraniï¿½nï¿½ oblasti. Krï¿½l David podporoval mï¿½rovï¿½ pronikï¿½nï¿½ normanskï¿½ho vlivu do Skotska. Nebylo to totï¿½ jako ï¿½normanskï¿½ zï¿½borï¿½, kterï¿½ potkal ve velkï¿½m mï¿½ï¿½ï¿½tku Anglii. ï¿½lo o rozï¿½iï¿½ovï¿½nï¿½ francouzï¿½tiny, budovï¿½nï¿½ mnoha hradï¿½ a kostelï¿½ a koneï¿½nï¿½ prolï¿½nï¿½nï¿½ jinï¿½ kultury do hlavnï¿½ho proudu skotskï¿½ch tradic.Vznikla vysokï¿½ ï¿½lechta (rody Bruce, Stuartovci), spï¿½ï¿½znï¿½nï¿½ s anglickï¿½mi a normanskï¿½mi rody.

V l. 1174 - 1189 bylo Skotsko ovlï¿½dï¿½no Jindï¿½ichem II. Plantagenetem.

## Formovï¿½nï¿½ Skotska

Vï¿½voj, prosperita a zmï¿½ny poznamenaly dlouhou dobu vlï¿½d krï¿½lï¿½ Alexandra II. (1214 -1249) a Alexandra III. (1249 - 1286), kdy byly ke Skotsku pï¿½ipojeny Hebridy. V bitvï¿½ u Largs v r. 1263 Alexandrovy sï¿½ly zniï¿½ily krï¿½le Haakona norskï¿½ho, coï¿½ vedlo k urychlenï¿½mu odsunu Norï¿½ ze zï¿½padnï¿½ch ostrovï¿½. Na zï¿½kladï¿½ mï¿½rovï¿½ smlouvy Norsku zï¿½staly pouze Orkneje a Shetlandy, kterï¿½ byly zï¿½skï¿½ny Skotskem o 200 let pozdï¿½ji.

Alexandrova smrt pï¿½i jezdeckï¿½ nehodï¿½ nastolila nï¿½slednou krizi a dlouhï¿½ a krvavï¿½ boj za skotskou nezï¿½vislost. Uprostï¿½ed civilnï¿½ch sporï¿½ provokovanï¿½ch 13 rivaly, uplatï¿½ujï¿½cï¿½mi nï¿½rok na trï¿½n, hlavnï¿½ mezi rody Bruce a Balliol, jehoï¿½ vyuï¿½il Eduard I. k podï¿½ï¿½zenï¿½ Skotska Anglii (r. 1292 jako lï¿½no, r. 1296 vojenskï¿½ obsazenï¿½). Po posouzenï¿½ situace vybral Johna Balliola, aby se stal vazalskï¿½m krï¿½lem Skotï¿½. Ale ten v r. 1295 Balliol uzavï¿½el s Franciï¿½ alianci, spojenectvï¿½ a zï¿½ekl se lennï¿½ vï¿½rnosti Edwardovi I.

V odplatu anglickï¿½ krï¿½l zabavil hrad Berwick, rozdrtil Skoty u Dunbaru, smetl severnï¿½ dobytï¿½ velkï¿½ hrady a odnesl ze Scone Palace Posvï¿½tnï¿½ korunovaï¿½nï¿½ kï¿½men, na kterï¿½m byli vï¿½ichni skotï¿½tï¿½ krï¿½lovï¿½ korunovï¿½ni.

30. listopadu 1997 byl kï¿½men slavnostnï¿½ pï¿½enesen zpï¿½t do Skotska, je uloï¿½en na edinburgskï¿½m hradu spolu se skotskï¿½mi korunovaï¿½nï¿½mi klenoty.

Rozzuï¿½enï¿½ pod vojenskou okupacï¿½, Skotovï¿½ proti anglickï¿½ nadvlï¿½dï¿½ vedli ï¿½spï¿½nï¿½ pod vedenï¿½m Williama Wallace povstï¿½nï¿½ v r. 1297; porazili Angliï¿½any u Stirlingskï¿½ho mostu. Ale Edward I. porazil Wallace u Falkirku nï¿½sledujï¿½cï¿½ rok. Angliï¿½tï¿½ luï¿½iï¿½tnï¿½ci zabili 15 000 Skotï¿½ (v r. 1301 vypovï¿½zenï¿½ Wallace byl zajat, vzat do Londï¿½na a brutï¿½lnï¿½ popraven, Edward ï¿½ï¿½sti jeho tï¿½la vystavoval po Skotsku).

Pak pï¿½iï¿½el Robert Bruce. Stal se rovnï¿½ uctï¿½vanï¿½m hrdinou Skotï¿½, pï¿½estoï¿½e svatokrï¿½deï¿½nï¿½ zabil v kostele svï¿½ho rivala. Neï¿½ se v r. 1306 dal v palï¿½ci Scone korunovat krï¿½lem (na replice korunovaï¿½nï¿½ho kamene). Byl donucen utï¿½ci do Irska, Bruce se dalï¿½ï¿½ rok vrï¿½til, aby si podrobil svï¿½ skotskï¿½ protivnï¿½ky. Edward zemï¿½el neï¿½ mohl rozdrtit novï¿½ zbohatlï¿½ky a jeho slabï¿½ syn Edward II. byl poraï¿½en v bitvï¿½ u Bannockburnu r. 1314 Robertem Brucem. Bitva znamenala rozhodujï¿½cï¿½ pï¿½edï¿½l.

Bruce tlaï¿½il na Angliï¿½any do r. 1328, kdy Edward III. podepsal smlouvu potvrzujï¿½cï¿½ skotskou nezï¿½vislost. Robert Bruce zemï¿½el dalï¿½ï¿½ rok, oslavovï¿½n jako stï¿½edovï¿½kï¿½ skotskï¿½ spasitel, zachrï¿½nce.

David II. (1329 - 1371) uzavï¿½el proti anglickï¿½ politice, podporujï¿½cï¿½ Edwarda z rodu Balliol (r. 1332 korunovï¿½n na skotskï¿½ho krï¿½le, zemï¿½el r. 1367), spojenectvï¿½ s Franciï¿½.

## Stuartovci

Kulturnï¿½ a politickï¿½ vliv pokraï¿½oval i po nï¿½stupu Stuartovcï¿½ (1371). Nebyl dobrï¿½ ï¿½as pro skotskï¿½ krï¿½le. Stuartovï¿½tï¿½ krï¿½lovï¿½ James I., II. a III., kteï¿½ï¿½ vlï¿½dli postupnï¿½ mezi lety 1406 - 1488, vï¿½ichni se dostali k moci jako dï¿½ti a vï¿½ichni zemï¿½eli nï¿½silnï¿½. James I. byl unesen a drï¿½en v zajetï¿½ 18 let, po jeho krï¿½tkï¿½ vlï¿½dï¿½ byl zavraï¿½dï¿½n. James II. byl zabit explodujï¿½cï¿½ zbranï¿½ a na Jamese III. byl spï¿½chï¿½n atentï¿½t, jeï¿½tï¿½ neï¿½ mu bylo 40 let.

Bï¿½hem tï¿½to doby se Skotsko rozï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ilo do dneï¿½nï¿½ch hranic zabrï¿½nï¿½m Orknejï¿½ a Shetland Norsku v r. 1472. Je zde proto mnoho mï¿½stnï¿½ch norskï¿½ch jmen.

James IV. (1488 - 1513), (jeho manï¿½elkou byla sestra Jindï¿½icha VIII., dï¿½deï¿½ek M. Stuartovny) silnï¿½ a populï¿½rnï¿½ monarcha. V zï¿½padnï¿½m Highlandu a na ostrovech se mu podaï¿½ilo potï¿½ï¿½t odbojnï¿½ nï¿½ï¿½elnï¿½ky klanu MacDonaldï¿½, kteï¿½ï¿½ si jiï¿½ od pol. 14. st. pï¿½isvojili titul ï¿½vlï¿½dci ostrovï¿½ï¿½, vï¿½dce si ï¿½ï¿½kal Lord of Isles. Kdyï¿½ dosedl v Anglii na trï¿½n Jindï¿½ich VIII., chtï¿½l bï¿½t Jakub IV. samostatnï¿½, ale proti Angliï¿½anï¿½m si nevedl tak dobï¿½e, v r. 1513 (oslava ï¿½starï¿½ aliance s Franciï¿½) James vedl svï¿½ skotskï¿½ vojsko do invaze, pronikli pouze pï¿½r mil za hranice do Flooden. Nï¿½sledujï¿½cï¿½ bitva, hoï¿½ce vzpomï¿½nanï¿½, dokï¿½zala rozdrtit Skoty pod vedenï¿½m hrabï¿½te ze Surrey. Asi 10 000 Skotï¿½ bylo zabito, vï¿½etnï¿½ krï¿½le samotnï¿½ho. Flodden bylo vï¿½dy velkou porï¿½kou Skotska.

Jedinï¿½m vï¿½sledkem bitvy bylo dosazenï¿½ nezletilï¿½ho Jakuba V. na trï¿½n. Kdyï¿½ vyrostl, vedl krvavou vï¿½lku proti klanï¿½m, svou vlastnï¿½ sestru nechal upï¿½lit za ï¿½arodï¿½jnictvï¿½, vzpï¿½ral se ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½enï¿½ reformace Jindï¿½icha VIII., podporoval mï¿½stnï¿½ skotskï¿½ soudy a poprvï¿½ se oï¿½enil s francouzskou ï¿½enou, pak podruhï¿½ s Mary of Guise. James V. zemï¿½el nï¿½hle v r. 1542, 6 dnï¿½ po narozenï¿½ dcery, jeho jedinï¿½ dï¿½diï¿½ky ï¿½ Marie Stuartovny.

Mary Queen of Scots ï¿½ Marie Stuartovna

Vzruï¿½ujï¿½cï¿½ dobrodruï¿½nï¿½ ï¿½ivot, lï¿½sky a smrt tï¿½to krï¿½lovny, zvanï¿½ Mary, okouzluje generace Skotï¿½. Jindï¿½ich VIII. se pokusil silou ji zasnoubit se svï¿½m synem. Rozzuï¿½en kdyï¿½ nesouhlasila, poslal svï¿½ vojsko do jiï¿½nï¿½ho Skotska.

V pï¿½ti letech byla Mary uklizena do Francie do bezpeï¿½ï¿½, v tï¿½ dobï¿½ jejï¿½ prokatolickï¿½ matka, podporovï¿½na Francouzi, pï¿½evzala moc jako regentka. S tï¿½m nesouhlasilo stï¿½le vï¿½ce Skotï¿½. Jako dospï¿½vajï¿½cï¿½ byla Marie provdï¿½na za chlapce, dï¿½dice francouzskï¿½ho trï¿½nu. Zemï¿½el vï¿½ak brzy potï¿½ co se stal krï¿½lem, a v r. 1561 se Mary, mladï¿½ katolickï¿½ vdova vrï¿½tila do Skotska, aby se ujala vlastnï¿½ho trï¿½nu.

Tam nalezla v plnï¿½m rozkvï¿½tu protestantskou reformaci, v ï¿½ele se zanï¿½cenï¿½m Johnem Knoxem. ï¿½ï¿½mskokatolickï¿½ cï¿½rkev byla zruï¿½ena a francouzskï¿½ vojsko poslï¿½no domï¿½.

V 16. st. rozvoj burï¿½oazie a rozï¿½ï¿½ï¿½enï¿½ kalvinismu (J. Knox).

Mary strï¿½vila vï¿½tï¿½inu ze 7 let jako krï¿½lovna Skotska v Edinburghu v Holyroodhouse Palace. Trvala na svï¿½ katolickï¿½ vï¿½ï¿½e, ale nekladla ï¿½ï¿½dnï¿½ pï¿½ekï¿½ky nï¿½boï¿½enskï¿½ svobodï¿½ ve svï¿½ zemi. V r. 1565 se vdala za mladï¿½ho kontroverznï¿½ho ï¿½lechtice Henryho, Lorda Darnleye (Stirling). Pï¿½ï¿½tï¿½ rok se narodil syn, v budoucnu James VI. Darnley byl zapleten do vraï¿½dy Mariina dï¿½vï¿½ryhodnï¿½ho tajemnï¿½ka v Holyroodu a sï¿½m byl zabit v r. 1567. Mnozï¿½ podezï¿½ï¿½vali Mary se souhlasem s vraï¿½dou jejï¿½ho manï¿½ela a podezï¿½enï¿½ se zhorï¿½ilo, kdyï¿½ se o nï¿½kolik mï¿½sï¿½cï¿½ pozdï¿½ji vdala za jednoho z vï¿½dcï¿½ spiknutï¿½, novï¿½ obrï¿½cenï¿½ho protestanta hradï¿½te z Bothwellu. To bylo pï¿½ï¿½liï¿½. Potupena ve skotskï¿½ch oï¿½ï¿½ch a zavrï¿½ena papeï¿½em, Mary zkouï¿½ela utï¿½ct od svï¿½ch poddanï¿½ch, nï¿½kteï¿½ï¿½ z nich ï¿½ï¿½dali pro ni smrt upï¿½lenï¿½m. Byla zajata, uvï¿½znï¿½na na ostrovnï¿½m hradu na Loch Leven a donucena k abdikaci v ï¿½ervnu r. 1567 ve prospï¿½ch svï¿½ho nedospï¿½lï¿½ho syna. Hledala ï¿½toï¿½iï¿½tï¿½ v Anglii, kde se alespoï¿½ katolï¿½kï¿½m zdï¿½lo, ï¿½e mï¿½ legitimnï¿½ nï¿½rok na trï¿½n, jenï¿½ patï¿½il jejï¿½ sestï¿½enici Alï¿½bï¿½tï¿½. Mary byla mï¿½sto toho drï¿½ena v zajetï¿½ skoro 20 let a nakonec byla sï¿½ata v r. 1587.

K unii s Angliï¿½

Bezprostï¿½ednï¿½ po Maryinï¿½ odchodu se protestantstvï¿½ ve Skotsku stalo oficiï¿½lnï¿½m nï¿½boï¿½enstvï¿½m. Po obdobï¿½ regentstvï¿½ (1567 - 1578), James VI. se stal prvnï¿½m protestantskï¿½m krï¿½lem Skotska. Kdyï¿½ Elizabeth zemï¿½ela v r. 1603, James VI. jako dï¿½dic jel na jih zï¿½skat anglickï¿½ trï¿½n jako James I. Vlï¿½dnul svï¿½mu nï¿½rodu vï¿½tï¿½inou z dï¿½lky, byl nï¿½stupce Stuartovcï¿½ (pravopis byl zmï¿½nï¿½n, pï¿½vodnï¿½ Stewarts, za krï¿½lovny Mary Queen of Scots). Nï¿½stupem Jakuba VI. na anglickï¿½ trï¿½n r. 1603 vznikla mezi obï¿½ma stï¿½ty personï¿½lnï¿½ unie. Ale unie korun neznamenala harmonii mezi dvï¿½ma tradiï¿½nï¿½ antagonistickï¿½mi sousedy.

Vzruï¿½ujï¿½cï¿½ je 17. st., kdy se ve Skotsku ukazuje prudkï¿½ cï¿½rkevnï¿½ i politickï¿½ zï¿½pas. Jamesï¿½v syn Charles I. (1625 - 1649) provokoval opozici skotskï¿½ch knï¿½ï¿½ a dokonce povstï¿½nï¿½, s jeho pokusy vnutit anglickï¿½ modlitebnï¿½ knihy. V r. 1638 byla podepisovali Skotovï¿½ po celï¿½ zemi nï¿½rodnï¿½ dohodu (Covenant), kterï¿½ poï¿½adovala prï¿½vo na vlastnï¿½ podobu presbytariï¿½nskï¿½ bohosluï¿½by. Pokus Karla I. potlaï¿½it skotskou samostatnost skonï¿½il neï¿½spï¿½chem a vyvolal r. 1639 povstï¿½nï¿½, kterï¿½ urychlilo pï¿½d stuartovskï¿½ho absolutismu a vypuknutï¿½ anglickï¿½ burï¿½oï¿½znï¿½ revoluce. V anglickï¿½ obï¿½anskï¿½ vï¿½lce, byla smlouva jako prvnï¿½ vrï¿½cena parlamentu proti Charlesovi, kterï¿½ byl sï¿½at v r. 1649. Nï¿½sledujï¿½cï¿½ rok Skotovï¿½ podporovali Charlese II., vedoucï¿½ho Cromwella do pï¿½epadnutï¿½ a poraï¿½enï¿½ jejich armï¿½dy u Dunbaru. Skotsko vydrï¿½elo 9 let vojenskï¿½ diktatury pod Cromwellovou anglickou republikou (1649 - 1660).

Po ï¿½slavnï¿½ revoluciï¿½ r. 1688 aï¿½ 1689, kdy byli Stuartovci vyhnï¿½ni z Anglie, udrï¿½eli si ve Skotsku znaï¿½nï¿½ mnoï¿½stvï¿½ stoupencï¿½ (jakobitï¿½), podporovanï¿½ch katolickï¿½mi mocnostmi (Franciï¿½ a ï¿½panï¿½lskem).

Po obnovenï¿½ monarchie skotskï¿½ krvavï¿½ vnitï¿½nï¿½ cï¿½rkevnï¿½ boj pokraï¿½oval. Extrï¿½mnï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½astnï¿½ci vzpoury v Highlandu byli pï¿½ï¿½snï¿½ potrestï¿½ni bï¿½hem tzv. ï¿½vraï¿½dï¿½cï¿½ho vï¿½kuï¿½, ale kdyï¿½ James VII./II. byl sesazen v revoluci 1688, presbytariï¿½nstvï¿½ bylo oficiï¿½lnï¿½ stanoveno jako skotskï¿½ nï¿½boï¿½enstvï¿½. Highlandskï¿½ klany byly donuceny k pï¿½ï¿½saze vï¿½rnosti novï¿½mu krï¿½li, Vilï¿½mu III. Oranï¿½skï¿½mu (1689 - 1702). Kdyï¿½ malï¿½ MacDonald klan v Glen Coe se zpozdil v potvrzenï¿½ zï¿½ruky, vojï¿½ci pod vedenï¿½m Campbell z Glecoyne zmasakrovali 38 lidï¿½ vï¿½etnï¿½ ï¿½en a dï¿½tï¿½. Tento masakr v Glen Coe 13. 2. 1692 patï¿½ï¿½ mezi ï¿½ernï¿½ epizody skotskï¿½ historie a zï¿½visel na klanovï¿½ nenï¿½visti a nelibosti monarchie.

1689 ï¿½ Killecrankie

Rozvï¿½jejï¿½cï¿½ se skotskï¿½ burï¿½oazie vï¿½ak postupnï¿½ prosazovala uï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ hospodï¿½ï¿½skou spoluprï¿½ci s Angliï¿½. Jejï¿½m zï¿½jmï¿½m proto odpovï¿½dalo politickï¿½ spojenï¿½ Skotska s Angliï¿½ a vytvoï¿½enï¿½ jednotnï¿½ho krï¿½lovstvï¿½ (Act of Union) Velkï¿½ Britï¿½nie s jedinï¿½m parlamentem a vlajkou v r. 1707. Skotovï¿½ byli reprezentovï¿½ni jako menï¿½ina ve Westminstru podle poï¿½tu obyvatel a bohatstvï¿½. Ale drï¿½eli si svï¿½j vlastnï¿½ soudnï¿½ dvï¿½r a znaï¿½nï¿½ rozdï¿½lnï¿½ prï¿½vo, jejich presbytariï¿½nskï¿½ nï¿½boï¿½enstvï¿½ bylo potvrzeno. Dnes vypadï¿½, ï¿½e unie na jednom ostrovï¿½ byla nevyhnutelnï¿½, ale skotskï¿½ nacionalismus nebylo snadnï¿½ podmanit a zmï¿½rnit.

## Povstï¿½nï¿½

ï¿½tyï¿½ikrï¿½t v nï¿½sledujï¿½cï¿½ch 40 letech, Jakobitï¿½ (vï¿½rni Stuartovcï¿½m) zkouï¿½eli vrï¿½tit krï¿½lovskou rodinu z exilu na trï¿½n, kterï¿½ byl nynï¿½ v drï¿½enï¿½ pï¿½vodnï¿½ nï¿½meckï¿½ hanoverskï¿½ rodiny.

V r. 1708, syn Jamese VII., znï¿½mï¿½ jako ï¿½starï¿½ ï¿½adatel trï¿½nuï¿½ pï¿½iï¿½el s francouzskou invazï¿½ do Firth od Forth, ale bylo mu zabrï¿½nï¿½no v pï¿½istï¿½nï¿½. V r. 1715 Jakobitï¿½ byli ï¿½spï¿½nï¿½jï¿½ï¿½ pod vedenï¿½m hrabï¿½te z Maru, kterï¿½ s asi 12 000 muï¿½i, ovlï¿½dal krï¿½tce Perth, Inverness a severovï¿½chodnï¿½ pobï¿½eï¿½ï¿½. Vï¿½ï¿½ili ve francouzskou pomoc, kterï¿½ nikdy nepï¿½iï¿½la. Nï¿½slednï¿½k pï¿½ijel o mï¿½sï¿½ce pozdï¿½ji aby shromï¿½dil vï¿½ce podpory mezi apatickou a provlï¿½dnï¿½ veï¿½ejnostï¿½ a po nepï¿½esvï¿½dï¿½ivï¿½ bitvï¿½ u Sheriffmuir (nedaleko Dunblane), rebelie vzpomï¿½nanï¿½ jako ï¿½Patnï¿½ctï¿½ rokï¿½, byla potlaï¿½ena. Malï¿½ Highlanderskï¿½ povstï¿½nï¿½ r. 1719, podporovanï¿½ malou ï¿½panï¿½lskou flotilou, bylo takï¿½ rychle poraï¿½eno.

Nejznï¿½mï¿½jï¿½ï¿½ jakobitskï¿½ povstï¿½nï¿½ bylo v r. 1745, stalo se heroickou i tragickou skotskou legendou. Bylo vedeno nï¿½slednï¿½kem, ï¿½Mladï¿½ uchazeï¿½ o trï¿½nï¿½, princem Charlesem Edwardem Stuartem pï¿½ezdï¿½vanï¿½m Bonnie Prince Charlie. Tento vnuk Jamese VII. byl 24 let starï¿½, kdyï¿½ pï¿½iplul z Francie pï¿½estrojenï¿½ za duchovnï¿½ho studenta do Skotska, poprvï¿½ v ï¿½ervenci 1745. Odhodlï¿½n obnovit trï¿½n Stuartovcï¿½, princ zaï¿½al niï¿½ï¿½m vï¿½c, neï¿½ pï¿½esvï¿½dï¿½ivï¿½m ï¿½armem a pï¿½vabem. Bï¿½hem dvou mï¿½sï¿½cï¿½ znovu shromï¿½dil dost klanovï¿½ch bojovnï¿½kï¿½ aby tï¿½hnul pï¿½es Skotsko, okupujï¿½ce Perth a Edinburgh a poraï¿½enï¿½ vlï¿½dnï¿½ armï¿½dou u Prestonpans. V ï¿½asnï¿½m listopadu uchvï¿½til Carlisle, Charlie a jeho highlandeï¿½i se dostali 4. prosince aï¿½ do Derby, 130 mil severnï¿½ od Londï¿½na. Ale Charlie byl zatlaï¿½en daleko poï¿½etnï¿½jï¿½ï¿½ anglickou armï¿½dou. Neochotnï¿½ souhlasil s brilantnï¿½ taktikou Lorda Geogre Murraye, ustoupil na sever a 20. 12. se vrï¿½til do Skotska. Vzdor pï¿½sobivï¿½mu vï¿½tï¿½zstvï¿½ nad Angliï¿½any u Falkirku v lednu, byl to pï¿½d Charlie i Jakobitï¿½.

V bitvï¿½ u Culloden More nedaleko Inverness 16. dubna 1746, unavenï¿½ Highlandeï¿½i byli poraï¿½eni vlï¿½dnï¿½m vojskem pod vedenï¿½m vï¿½vody z Cumberlandu. Za mï¿½nï¿½ neï¿½ hodinu bylo pobito 1 200 muï¿½ï¿½, mnoho dalï¿½ï¿½ch poranï¿½no a zajato tak brutï¿½lnï¿½, za coï¿½ si Cumberland vyslouï¿½il pï¿½ezdï¿½vku ï¿½ï¿½eznï¿½kï¿½. Charlie vyvï¿½znul, strï¿½vil 5 mï¿½sï¿½cï¿½ jako uprchlï¿½k v Highlandu a na zï¿½padnï¿½ch ostrovech (Skye) pï¿½ed odplutï¿½m navï¿½dy na francouzskï¿½ lodi.

Nï¿½sledky

Aï¿½koli Jakobitï¿½ skonï¿½ili, Highlandeï¿½i zaplatili za pï¿½ipojenï¿½ a souhlas s rebï¿½liï¿½. Vlï¿½da obsadila vojskem oblast, zniï¿½ila strukturu klanï¿½, potlaï¿½ila gaelï¿½tinu a dokonce zakï¿½zala obleï¿½enï¿½ kiltï¿½ na nï¿½kolik desetiletï¿½. Od r. 1780 a pak tï¿½mï¿½ï¿½ po celï¿½ch sto let tisï¿½ce malï¿½ch farmï¿½ï¿½skï¿½ch rodin bylo donuceno uvolnit svï¿½ domovy a udï¿½lat mï¿½sto pro bohatï¿½ ovï¿½ï¿½ farmï¿½ï¿½e z jihu, coï¿½ bylo potupnï¿½. Tato nechvalnï¿½ proslulï¿½ taktika dostala nï¿½zev Highland Clearance, vyï¿½iï¿½tï¿½nï¿½ Highlandu - nï¿½kteï¿½ï¿½ byli vypuzeni, mnoho jinï¿½ch emigrovalo v chudobï¿½ do Kanady, USA a Austrï¿½lie. Kdyï¿½ Britï¿½nie vstoupila do vï¿½lky s Napoleonskou Franciï¿½, skoro 40 tisï¿½c muï¿½ï¿½ bylo naverbovï¿½no pro novï¿½ highlandskï¿½ regimenty, bojujï¿½cï¿½ s velkï¿½m nasazenï¿½m.

V menï¿½ï¿½ch problï¿½mech jiï¿½nï¿½ho Skotska, se Edinburgh zaï¿½al vyvï¿½jet ve velkï¿½ kulturnï¿½ centrum, kterï¿½m je dodnes. Skotï¿½tï¿½ vï¿½dci, literï¿½ti, objevitelï¿½ a vï¿½zkumnï¿½ci jsou mezinï¿½rodnï¿½ znï¿½mi. Jednotlivï¿½ Skotovï¿½ ï¿½li na jih a zapojili se do ï¿½ivota Spojenï¿½ho krï¿½lovstvï¿½.

Vï¿½voj skotskï¿½ho kapitalismu se vyznaï¿½oval vyvlastï¿½ovï¿½nï¿½m dosud nezï¿½vislï¿½ho rolnictva (vedl k zï¿½niku klanï¿½) a industrializaci na jihu zemï¿½ (Edinburgh, Glasgow).

Symbolickï¿½ obrat nastal v r. 1822, kdyï¿½ George IV. vykonal prvnï¿½ stï¿½tnï¿½ nï¿½vï¿½tï¿½vu ve Skotsku po stoletï¿½. Tatrany a krï¿½lovskï¿½ korunovaï¿½nï¿½ klenoty byly vystaveny v Holyrood Palace a dokonce krï¿½l si vzal kilt na festivalu organizovanï¿½m Sirem Walterem Scottem. Pozdï¿½jï¿½ï¿½ krï¿½lovna Victoria a princ Albert znovuobjevili Skotsko a koupili Balmoral Castle, kterï¿½ je dosud uï¿½ï¿½vï¿½n jako letnï¿½ domov krï¿½lovskï¿½ rodiny.

Bï¿½hem 19. st. se ve Skotsku formovalo silnï¿½ dï¿½lnickï¿½ hnutï¿½. Dnes se zde projevuje silnï¿½ autonomistickï¿½ hnutï¿½.

Skotskï¿½ nacionalismus znovu vzrostl objevenï¿½m v r. 1970 velkï¿½ch zï¿½sob ropy v Severnï¿½ moï¿½i. Turistika, vï¿½dy pï¿½evï¿½nï¿½ z Anglie, nynï¿½ rapidnï¿½ roste i ze zahraniï¿½ï¿½.

V poslednï¿½ch letech dochï¿½zï¿½ k oï¿½ivenï¿½ skotskï¿½ho nï¿½rodnï¿½ho povï¿½domï¿½, coï¿½ do znaï¿½nï¿½ mï¿½ry vyplï¿½vï¿½ jednak ze zklamï¿½nï¿½ nad ï¿½padkem britskï¿½ho hospodï¿½ï¿½stvï¿½, dï¿½le z pocitu, ï¿½e zemï¿½ nedostala spravedlivï¿½ podï¿½l ze zisku z ropy objevenï¿½ u skotskï¿½ho pobï¿½eï¿½ï¿½, a takï¿½ z nepï¿½ï¿½telstvï¿½ k ï¿½adï¿½ konzervativnï¿½ch vlï¿½d v tradiï¿½nï¿½ labouristickï¿½ oblasti. I v tï¿½to situaci zï¿½skï¿½vï¿½ Skotskï¿½ nï¿½rodnï¿½ strana stï¿½le jen malï¿½ poï¿½et kï¿½esel v parlamentu a politickï¿½ a ekonomickï¿½ osud Skotska je moï¿½no, alespoï¿½ prozatï¿½m, charakterizovat jako osud vztahu ke ï¿½starï¿½mu nepï¿½ï¿½teliï¿½, Anglii. Od kvï¿½tna (ledna) 1999 mï¿½ Skotsko svï¿½j vlastnï¿½ parlament.

## Historickï¿½ meznï¿½ky

2. st. pï¿½.Kr. ï¿½ï¿½manï¿½ ustoupili z opevnï¿½nï¿½ na severu a postavili Hadriï¿½nï¿½v val

5. ï¿½ 6. st. Z Irska pï¿½ichï¿½zejï¿½ Skotovï¿½ hovoï¿½ï¿½cï¿½ gaelsky.

563 Sv. Columba pï¿½ichï¿½zï¿½ na ostrov Iona.

1018 Vytvoï¿½ena jiï¿½nï¿½ hranice Skotska.

1069 Malcolm III: (Velkohlavï¿½) si bere za ï¿½enu anglickou princeznu Markï¿½tu.

1296 Edvard I. vydrancoval Berwick a zmocnil se Sconskï¿½ho kamene.

1297 Bitva u Stirlinskï¿½ho mostu; Skotovï¿½ porazili Angliï¿½any.

1306 Robert I. Bruce korunovï¿½n skotskï¿½m krï¿½lem.

1314 Bitva u Bannockburnu (24. srpna), Robert I. Bruce porazil Angliï¿½any slouï¿½ï¿½cï¿½ Edvardu II.

1328 Smlouva z Northamptonu uznï¿½vï¿½ nezï¿½vislost Skotska.

1513 Bitva u Floodenu; Angliï¿½anï¿½ zabili asi 10 tisï¿½c Skotï¿½.

1542 V palï¿½ci Linlithgow se narodila Marie Stuartovna.

1567 Marie byla donucena abdikovat a byla uvï¿½znï¿½na na Loch Leven. V r. 1568 uprchla, ale zbytek ï¿½ivota proï¿½ila v zajetï¿½ v Anglii.

1603 Personï¿½lnï¿½ unie (Union of Crowns).

17. st. Vnitï¿½nï¿½ nï¿½boï¿½enskï¿½ boje ï¿½ stoupenci dohody Covenant proti Cromwellovï¿½m anglickï¿½m silï¿½m.

1692 Masakr u Glencoe (13. ï¿½nora).

1707 Zï¿½kon o unii (Act of Union). Skotsko a Anglie se stï¿½vajï¿½ jednï¿½m krï¿½lovstvï¿½m.

18. st. Jakobitskï¿½ povstï¿½nï¿½ v r. 1715 a 1745 vedenï¿½ Karlem Edvardem (Bonnie Prince Charlie) a ï¿½starï¿½m uchazeï¿½em o trï¿½nï¿½. ï¿½Skotskï¿½ osvï¿½cenï¿½ na jihu zemï¿½ (Edinburgh) s Robertem Burnsem, sirem Walterem Scottem a dalï¿½ï¿½mi.

1780 Zaï¿½ï¿½nï¿½ ï¿½vyï¿½iï¿½tï¿½nï¿½ Highlanduï¿½ (Hihgland Clearances).

19. st. Dï¿½ky patronaci krï¿½lovny Viktorie se postavenï¿½ Skotska zlepï¿½uje.

20. st. Obnova ducha nacionalismu a rostoucï¿½ nespokojenost s vlï¿½dou ve Westminstru.

1999 Skotsko mï¿½ svï¿½j vlastnï¿½ parlament.